DNA Solutions provides cattle genotyping for many purposes including breeding benefits and research.
The basics are that DNA is the genetic material of all living things and that genetic information is literally written in the DNA molecule in the form of genes. Most of us have a grasp of genetics. We understand that the physical traits of parents show up in their offspring because of genetics. This genetic information is passed on because one half of an offspring's DNA comes from the bull and the other half comes from the cow.
We hope that the best of the genetic characteristics will be passed on to his calves. We try to control the breeding process by selecting the bulls that will be used in our breeding programs and try to prevent other bulls from contributing. This is where a DNA test can be of value. Most people are familiar with the recent celebrity murder case in which human identity was determined by a DNA test. The very same technology can be applied to any living organism, including cattle. The test is actually looking for specific pieces of DNA which are often referred to as "DNA markers". The key to the technology is that these markers behave just like genes. They come in pairs, one from the bull and one from the cow. The pattern of each of the markers is the genetic profile or genotype of the individual. This profile is constant for an individual but differs between individuals.